RomixImage, Adobe Stock
January 24, 2023

State Corporate Income Tax Rates and Brackets for 2023

Key Findings

  • Forty-four states levy a corporate income tax. Rates range from 2.5 percent in North Carolina to 11.5 percent in New Jersey.
  • Four states—Alaska, Illinois, Minnesota, and New Jersey—levy top marginal corporate income tax rates of 9 percent or higher.
  • Eleven states—Arizona, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Utah—have top rates at or below 5 percent.
  • Nevada, Ohio, Texas, and Washington impose gross receipts taxes instead of corporate income taxes. Delaware, Oregon, and Tennessee impose gross receipts taxes in addition to their corporate income taxes. Some localities in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia likewise impose gross receipts taxes, which are generally understood to be more economically harmful than corporate income taxes.
  • South Dakota and Wyoming are the only states that levy neither a corporate income nor gross receipts tax.

Corporate income taxes are levied in 44 states. Though often thought of as a major tax type, corporate income taxes accounted for an average of just 7.07 percent of state tax collections and 4.04 percent of state general revenue in fiscal year 2021. And while these figures are not high, they represent a substantial increase over prior years. Corporate income taxes accounted for 2.26 percent of general revenue in FY 2020, which is more in line with historical norms.

New Jersey levies the highest top statutory corporate tax rate at 11.5 percent, followed by Minnesota (9.8 percent) and Illinois (9.50 percent). Alaska and Pennsylvania levy top statutory corporate tax rates of 9.40 percent and 8.99 percent, respectively.

Conversely, North Carolina’s flat rate of 2.5 percent is the lowest in the country, followed by rates in Missouri and Oklahoma (both at 4 percent) and North Dakota (4.31 percent). Seven other states impose top rates at or below 5 percent: Colorado (4.55 percent), Utah (4.85 percent), Arizona and Indiana (4.9 percent), and Kentucky, Mississippi, and South Carolina (5 percent).

Nevada, Ohio, Texas, and Washington forgo corporate income taxes but instead impose gross receipts taxes on businesses, which are generally thought to be more economically harmful due to tax pyramiding, disparate impacts on low-margin businesses, and non-transparency. Delaware, Oregon, and Tennessee impose gross receipts taxes in addition to corporate income taxes, as do several states, like Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, which permit gross receipts taxes at the local (but not state) level. South Dakota and Wyoming levy neither corporate income nor gross receipts taxes, and with the enactment of a budget that includes the multiyear phaseout of its corporate income tax, North Carolina is due to join them by 2030.

Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia have single-rate corporate tax systems. The greater propensity toward single-rate systems for corporate tax than individual income tax is likely because there is no meaningful “ability to pay” concept in corporate taxation. Jeffrey Kwall, professor of law at Loyola University Chicago School of Law, notes that:

Graduated corporate rates are inequitable—that is, the size of a corporation bears no necessary relation to the income levels of the owners. Indeed, low-income corporations may be owned by individuals with high incomes, and high-income corporations may be owned by individuals with low incomes.

A single-rate system minimizes the incentive for firms to engage in economically wasteful tax planning to mitigate the damage of higher marginal tax rates that some states levy as taxable income rises.

Notable State Corporate Income Tax Changes in 2023

Several states implemented corporate income tax rate changes over the past year, among other revisions and reforms. Notable changes for tax year 2023 include:

  • Arkansas saw its top rate of 5.9 percent drop to 5.3 percent on January 1, due to the enactment of H.B. 1002 in August of 2022 which accelerated previously planned individual and corporate income tax rate reductions.
  • Iowa’s three-bracket corporate income tax was consolidated into a two-bracket tax at the start of the year, with the top rate decreasing from 9.8 to 8.4 percent. This was the result of the state meeting revenue triggers at least four years earlier than initially anticipated.
  • New Hampshire’s Business Profits Tax (the state’s version of a corporate income tax) rate was lowered from 7.6 to 7.5 percent beginning in 2023 due to the enactment of HB 1221 in June 2022.
  • Due to the enactment of HB 1342 in 2022, Pennsylvania saw a rate reduction from 9.99 percent to 8.99 percent on January 1. The rate will continue to decrease by 0.5 percentage points each year until it reaches 4.99 percent at the beginning of 2031.

Additionally, Idaho’s corporate income tax rate was reduced from 6.5 to 6.0 percent retroactive to January 1, 2022, under H0436, adopted last year.

2023 state corporate income tax rates and brackets see state corporate tax rates by state

State Corporate Income Tax Rates and Brackets as of January 1, 2023
State Rates   Brackets
Ala. 6.5% > $0
Alaska 0.0% > $0
  2.0% > $25,000
  3.0% > $49,000
  4.0% > $74,000
  5.0% > $99,000
  6.0% > $124,000
  7.0% > $148,000
  8.0% > $173,000
  9.0% > $198,000
  9.4% > $222,000
Ariz. 4.9% > $0
Ark. 1.0% > $0
  2.0% > $3,000
  3.0% > $6,000
  5.0% > $11,000
  5.3% > $25,000
California 8.84% > $0
Colorado 4.55% > $0
Connecticut (a) 7.5% > $0
Delaware (b) 8.7% > $0
Florida 5.5% > $0
Georgia (c) 5.75% > $0
Hawaii 4.4% > $0
  5.4% > $25,000
  6.4% > $100,000
Idaho 5.8% > $0
Illinois. (d) 9.5% > $0
Indiana 4.9% > $0
Iowa 5.5% > $0
  8.4% > $100,000
Kansas 4.0% > $0
  7.0% > $50,000
Kentucky 5.0% > $0
Louisiana 3.5% > $0
  5.5% > $50,000
  7.5% > $150,000
Maine 3.50% > $0
  7.93% > $350,000
  8.33% > $1,050,000
  8.93% > $3,500,000
Maryland 8.25% > $0
Massachusetts 8.0% > $0
Michigan 6.0% > $0
Minnesota 9.8% > $0
Mississippi 4.0% > $5,000
  5.0% > $10,000
Missouri 4.0% > $0
Montana 6.75% > $0
Nebraska 5.58% > $0
  7.25% > $100,000
Nevada   (b)  
New Hampshire 7.5% > $0
New Jersey (e) 6.5% > $0
  7.5% > $50,000
  9.0% > $100,000
  11.5% > $1,000,000
New Mexico 4.8% > $0
  5.9% > $500,000
New York 6.50% > $0
  7.25% > $5,000,000
North Carolina 2.5% > $0
North Dakota 1.41% > $0
  3.55% > $25,000
  4.31% > $50,000
Ohio   (b)  
Oklahoma 4.0% > $0
Oregon (a) 6.6% > $0
  7.6% > $1,000,000
Pennsylvania 8.99% > $0
Rhode Island 7.0% > $0
South Carolina 5.0% > $0
South Dakota   None  
Tennessee (b) 6.5% > $0
Texas   (b)  
Utah 4.85% > $0
Vermont 6.0% > $0
  7.0% > $10,000
  8.5% > $25,000
Virginia 6.0% > $0
Washington   (b)  
West Virginia 6.5% > $0
Wisconsin 7.9% > $0
Wyoming   None  
Washington, D.C. 8.25% > $0

(a) Connecticut has historically charged a 10% surtax on a business’s tax liability if it has gross proceeds of $100 million or more, or if it files as part of a combined unitary group. This surtax expired on January 1. Legislators have extended the surtax in the past and will decide whether to do so again this session.

(b) Nevada, Ohio, Texas, and Washington do not have a corporate income tax but do have a gross receipts tax with rates not strictly comparable to corporate income tax rates. Delaware, Oregon, and Tennessee have gross receipts taxes in addition to corporate income taxes, as do several states like Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, which permit gross receipts taxes at the local (but not state) level.

(c) Georgia’s corporate income tax rate will revert to 6% on January 1, 2026.

(d) Illinois’ rate includes two separate corporate income taxes, one at a 7% rate and one at a 2.5% rate. 

(e) In New Jersey, the rates indicated apply to a corporation’s entire net income rather than just income over the threshold. A temporary and retroactive surcharge is in effect from 2020 to 2023, bringing the rate to 11.5% for businesses with income over $1 million.

Note: In addition to regular income taxes, many states impose other taxes on corporations such as gross receipts taxes and capital stock taxes. Some states also impose an alternative minimum tax and special rates on financial institutions.

Sources: Tax Foundation; state tax statutes, forms, and instructions; Bloomberg Tax.

Banner image attribution: RomixImage, Adobe Stock

A tax is a mandatory payment or charge collected by local, state, and national governments from individuals or businesses to cover the costs of general government services, goods, and activities.

A surtax is an additional tax levied on top of an already existing business or individual tax and can have a flat or progressive rate structure. Surtaxes are typically enacted to fund a specific program or initiative, whereas revenue from broader-based taxes, like the individual income tax, typically cover a multitude of programs and services.

A gross receipts tax is a tax applied to a company’s gross sales, without deductions for a firm’s business expenses, like costs of goods sold and compensation. Unlike a sales tax, a gross receipts tax is assessed on businesses and apply to business-to-business transactions in addition to final consumer purchases, leading to tax pyramiding.

A corporate income tax (CIT) is levied by federal and state governments on business profits. Many companies are not subject to the CIT because they are taxed as pass-through businesses, with income reportable under the individual income tax.

The marginal tax rate is the amount of additional tax paid for every additional dollar earned as income. The average tax rate is the total tax paid divided by total income earned. A 10 percent marginal tax rate means that 10 cents of every next dollar earned would be taken as tax.

Taxable income is the amount of income subject to tax, after deductions and exemptions. For both individuals and corporations, taxable income differs from—and is less than—gross income.