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Patent Box Regimes in Europe, 2024

The aim of patent boxes is generally to encourage and attract local research and development (R&D) and to incentivize businesses to locate IP in the country. However, patent boxes can introduce another level of complexity to a tax system, and some recent research questions whether patent boxes are actually effective in driving innovation.

3 min read
Puerto Rico Tax Competitiveness and Pillar Two Global Tax Deal

Puerto Rican Competitiveness and Pillar Two

Puerto Rico, a US territory with a limited ability to set its own tax policies, will be the first part of the US to be substantially affected by Pillar Two, the global tax agreement that seeks to establish a 15 percent minimum tax rate on corporate income.

17 min read
2024 sales tax rates by state midyear July 1st 2024 sales taxes by state including local sales taxes

State and Local Sales Tax Rates, Midyear 2024

Retail sales taxes are an essential part of most states’ revenue toolkits, responsible for 32 percent of state tax collections and 13 percent of local tax collections (24 percent of combined collections).

8 min read
Tax Subsidies for R&D Expenditures in Europe

Tax Subsidies for R&D Expenditures in Europe, 2024

Many countries incentivize business investment in research and development (R&D), intending to foster innovation. A common approach is to provide direct government funding for R&D activity. However, a significant number of jurisdictions also offer R&D tax incentives.

3 min read
The Impact of High Inflation on Tax Revenues across Europe

The Impact of High Inflation on Tax Revenues across Europe

The European Union’s experience with high inflation highlights the critical need for adaptive fiscal policies. Best practices drawn from the academic literature recommend implementing automatic adjustment mechanisms with a certain periodicity and based on price increases.

31 min read
Sources of personal income tax return data as of 2024 Tax Foundation

Sources of Personal Income, Tax Year 2021

Reviewing reported income helps to understand the composition of the federal government’s revenue base and how Americans earn their taxable income. The individual income tax, the federal government’s largest source of revenue, is largely a tax on labor.

9 min read
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Featured Work

2024 State Business Tax Climate Index

2024 State Business Tax Climate Index

In recognition of the fact that there are better and worse ways to raise revenue, our Index focuses on how state tax revenue is raised, not how much. The rankings, therefore, reflect how well states structure their tax systems.

111 min read

International Tax Competitiveness Index 2023

While there are many factors that affect a country’s economic performance, taxes play an important role. A well-structured tax code is easy for taxpayers to comply with and can promote economic development while raising sufficient revenue for a government’s priorities.

88 min read
2023 European Tax Policy Scorecard Tax Foundation Europe

2023 European Tax Policy Scorecard

The variety of approaches to taxation among European countries creates a need to evaluate these systems relative to each other. For that purpose, we have developed the European Tax Policy Scorecard—a relative comparison of European countries’ tax systems.

52 min read
Tax Education - girl in classroom

TaxEDU is designed to advance tax policy education, discussion, and understanding in classrooms, living rooms, and government chambers. It combines the best aspects of cutting-edge and traditional education to elevate the debate, enable deeper understanding, and achieve principled policy.

TaxEDU gives teachers the tools to make students better citizens, taxpayers a vocabulary to see through the rhetoric, lawmakers crash courses to write smarter laws, and videos and podcasts for anyone who wants to boost their tax knowledge on the go.

  • Glossary

    Understand the terms of the debate with our comprehensive glossary, including over 100 tax terms and concepts.

  • Videos

    Our animated explainer videos are designed for the classroom, social media, and anyone looking to boost their tax knowledge on the go.

  • Educational Resources

    Our primers, case studies, and lesson plans form a comprehensive crash course ready for the classroom.

  • Podcast

    The Deduction, a Tax Foundation podcast, is your guide to the complicated world of tax and economics.

  • Principles

    Learn about the principles of sound tax policy—simplicity, transparency, neutrality, and stability—which should serve as touchstones for policymakers and taxpayers everywhere.

  • Legislative Courses

    Our Tax Foundation University and State Tax Policy Boot Camp lecture series are designed to educate tomorrow's leaders on the principles of sound tax policy.