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Cristina Enache Tax Foundation

Cristina Enache

Economist

Cristina Enache writes on the economics of tax policy and is the author of the Spanish Regional Tax Competitiveness Index. She was formerly the Director of Research at Civismo, an economic research organization based in Spain. She also served as head of research at Institución Futuro, a regional think tank based in Navarra in northern Spain. She is also currently Secretary-General at the World Taxpayers Associations and General Manager of the Spanish Taxpayers Union, which she joined in 2016.

Cristina has a degree in economics from the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest and a master’s degree in Economics and Finance from the University of Navarra.

Latest Work

2023 spain tax reform and spain tax policy including Spain wealth tax and Spain windfall tax policies

Spain Is Doubling Down on Poor Tax Policy

Spain should follow the examples of Italy and the UK and enact tax reforms that have the potential to stimulate economic activity by supporting private investment while increasing its international tax competitiveness.

7 min read
Capital cost recovery and capital allowances in the OECD 2023 , full expensing, full immediate expensing

Capital Cost Recovery across the OECD, 2023

To recover from the pandemic and put the global economy on a trajectory for growth, policymakers need to aim for more generous and permanent capital allowances. This will spur real investment and can also contribute to more environmentally friendly production across the globe.

33 min read
2022 dividend tax rates Europe dividend income tax rates

Dividend Tax Rates in Europe, 2022

In many countries, corporate profits are subject to two layers of taxation: the corporate income tax at the entity level when the corporation earns income, and the dividend tax or capital gains tax at the individual level when that income is passed to its shareholders as either dividends or capital gains.

3 min read
Chile tax reform 2023 Chile Boric business tax reform to Chile corporate tax reform

Chile Needs Pro-Growth Tax Reform

As Chile looks to the future, policymakers might want to follow the UK’s example. Policymakers should focus on growth-oriented tax policies that encourage private and foreign direct investment, savings, and entrepreneurial activity, increasing Chile’s international tax competitiveness.

2 min read

Capital Gains Tax Rates in Europe, 2023

In many countries, investment income, such as dividends and capital gains, is taxed at a different rate than wage income. Denmark levies the highest top capital gains tax of all countries covered, at a rate of 42 percent. Norway levies the second-highest top capital gains tax at 37.8 percent. Finland and France follow, at 34 percent each.

4 min read
Top Personal Income Tax Rates in Europe 2023 Income Tax Rates or Individual Income Tax Rates

Top Personal Income Tax Rates in Europe, 2023

Denmark (55.9 percent), France (55.4 percent), and Austria (55 percent) have the highest top statutory personal income tax rates among European OECD countries.

2 min read
2023 VAT rates in Europe, 2023 VAT rates by country, 2023 value-added tax rates in Europe and 2023 value-added tax rates by country

VAT Rates in Europe, 2023

The EU countries with the highest standard VAT rates are Hungary (27 percent), Croatia, Denmark, and Sweden (all at 25 percent). Luxembourg levies the lowest standard VAT rate at 16 percent, followed by Malta (18 percent), Cyprus, Germany, and Romania (all at 19 percent).

4 min read
Actionable VAT Policy Gap in Europe including VAT gap and VAT revenue potential in Europe

Actionable VAT Policy Gap in Europe

Value-added taxes (VAT) make up approximately one-fifth of total tax revenues in Europe. However, European countries differ significantly in how efficiently they raise VAT revenues. One way to measure a country’s VAT efficiency is the VAT Gap.

3 min read

VAT Expansion and Labor Tax Cuts

Since VAT revenues are such a significant and stable contributor to overall government revenues, EU policymakers should pay particular attention to how efficiently those revenues are raised.

22 min read

Corporate Tax Rates around the World, 2022

A new report shows that corporate tax rates around the world continue to level off. “We aren’t seeing a race to the bottom, we’re seeing a race toward the middle,” said Sean Bray, EU policy analyst at the Tax Foundation.

25 min read
Chile tax reform Chile income tax system, Taxes in chile

Chile’s Tax Reform Heads in the Wrong Direction

As Chile looks to the future, the accelerated deductions for capital investment costs should be extended and made permanent while unnecessary tax hikes on individuals and capital should be avoided. Policymakers should focus on growth-oriented tax policy that encourages investment, savings, and entrepreneurial activity, increasing Chile’s international tax competitiveness.

4 min read
Windfall tax Europe 2023 windfall profits taxes in EU windfall tax What European Countries Are Doing about Windfall Profit Taxes and Windfall Tax policies in Europe Bloomberg Tax

What European Countries Are Doing about Windfall Profit Taxes

It’s unlikely these implemented and proposed windfall taxes will achieve their goals of addressing high gas and energy prices and raising additional revenues. They would more likely raise prices, penalize domestic production, and punitively target certain industries without a sound tax base.

9 min read
France social security contributions French workers upward mobility France marginal tax rates and France upward mobility

Lithuanian Model Could Help French Workers’ Upward Mobility

Reshaping some of these policies to generate a smoother variation of marginal tax rates over different income levels would likely raise labor supply and encourage the upward mobility of workers and especially that of average-income workers.

5 min read