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Cristina Enache Tax Foundation

Cristina Enache

Economist

Cristina Enache writes on the economics of tax policy and is the author of the Spanish Regional Tax Competitiveness Index. She was formerly the Director of Research at Civismo, an economic research organization based in Spain. She also served as head of research at Institución Futuro, a regional think tank based in Navarra in northern Spain. She is also currently Secretary-General at the World Taxpayers Associations and General Manager of the Spanish Taxpayers Union, which she joined in 2016.

Cristina has a degree in economics from the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest and a master’s degree in Economics and Finance from the University of Navarra.

Latest Work

Spain Recovery Plan Tax Hikes 2020 Spanish Regional Tax Competitiveness Index, Spain economic recovery, Spain recovery budget, Spain recovery plan

More Tax Hikes Than Investment Projects?

Tax hikes implemented in the near term might undermine Spain’s economic recovery. Spain should focus on implementing tax reforms that have the potential to stimulate economic recovery by supporting private investment and employment while increasing its internal and international tax competitiveness.

5 min read
international tax avoidance To help countries face the pandemic-related financing needs while reducing inequality, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has released a series of policy recommendations based on a temporary COVID-19 tax, levied on high incomes or wealth. IMF tax proposals: shrink inequality or harm pandemic economic recovery? OECD work plan, BEPs 2.0, base erosion, profit allocation, global minimum tax, base erosion and profit shifting oecd

IMF Tax Proposals: Shrink Inequality or Sink Post-Pandemic Recovery?

To help countries face the pandemic-related financing needs while reducing inequality, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has released a series of policy recommendations based on a temporary COVID-19 tax, levied on high incomes or wealth.

4 min read
EU business tax reform, European Union business tax reform, European Commission EU business taxation framework

The EU Determined to Reform the Business Tax

The EU recently launched a consultation to reform the business tax system, which will outline the priorities for corporate taxation over the coming years to meet the needs of a globalized economy that struggles to recover from the consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. It will also set EU actions regarding the ongoing international discussion on the taxation of the digital economy and a global minimum tax.

3 min read
Remote work tax revenue implications digital nomad visas, digital nomads, tax incentives for remote workers. Deutsche Bank tax work-from-home tax Deutsche Bank privilege tax on remote work

Tax Incentives for Digital Nomads and Remote Workers

Policy changes to attract foreigners are not without benefits, but governments should carefully weigh the costs of the tax incentives against opportunities to implement broader tax reforms. A more efficient income tax system is a better objective than just focusing on incentives for foreigners to change their tax residence.

4 min read
UK taxes, UK tax reform 2021 UK tax reform British tax reform, 2021 UK budget

Brits to Prepare for Tax Reforms

Tax hikes or spending cuts implemented early in the year might undermine the desirable rapid recovery of the economy. The UK should focus on implementing tax reforms that have the potential to stimulate economic recovery by supporting business investment and employment while increasing its international tax competitiveness.

4 min read
Individual Taxes Are the Most Important Tax Revenue Source for the United States Sources of Tax Revenue in the United States US tax revenue, governmetn revenue in the US, US federal tax revenue 2021

Sources of U.S. Tax Revenue by Tax Type, 2021 Update

In the United States, individual income taxes (federal, state, and local) are the primary source of tax revenue, at 41.5 percent of total tax revenue. Social insurance taxes make up the second-largest share, at 24.9 percent, followed by consumption taxes, at 17.6 percent, and property taxes, at 12.1 percent.

4 min read
Canada's Provinces Collect Almost the Same Amount of Revenue as Its Central Government Sources of OECD Tax Revenue by Level of Government, 2019, Sources of tax revenue in the OECD tax revenue

Sources of Government Revenue in the OECD, 2021 Update

Developed countries have on average become more reliant on consumption taxes and less reliant on individual income taxes. These policy changes matter, considering that consumption-based taxes raise revenue with less distortionary effects than taxes on income.

16 min read
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act offshoring OECD BEPS project, OECD consultation document, OECD multinationals, Consumption tax policies in OECD countries, Consumption taxes in OECD countries

Consumption Tax Policies in OECD Countries

Despite the potential of consumption taxes as a neutral and efficient source of tax revenues, many governments have implemented policies that are unduly complex and have poorly designed tax bases that exclude many goods or services from taxation, or tax them at reduced rates.

40 min read
Spain Recovery Plan Tax Hikes 2020 Spanish Regional Tax Competitiveness Index, Spain economic recovery, Spain recovery budget, Spain recovery plan

2020 Spanish Regional Tax Competitiveness Index

The Regional Tax Competitiveness Index (RTCI) for Spain allows policymakers, businesses, and taxpayers to evaluate and measure how their regions’ tax systems compare. This Index has been designed to analyze how well regions structure their tax system. Additionally, it serves as a road map for policymakers to reform their tax systems and make their regions more competitive and attractive for entrepreneurs and residents.

7 min read
Africa tax revenue, revenue statistics in Africa, VAT is the most important tax revenue source in Africa

OECD Report: Tax Revenue in African Countries

Taxes on goods and services were on average the greatest source of tax revenue for African countries, at over 50 percent of total tax revenues. VAT contributed on average 30 percent, making it the most important tax on goods and services.

6 min read
Spain Recovery Plan Tax Hikes 2020 Spanish Regional Tax Competitiveness Index, Spain economic recovery, Spain recovery budget, Spain recovery plan

Spain’s Recovery Budget Comes with Tax Hikes

While other countries in Europe are working towards introducing tax cuts and stimulating economic recovery by supporting business investment and employment, Spain is putting more fiscal pressure on households and businesses.

4 min read
environmental tax policies, environmental taxation

Countries Eye Environmental Taxation

A recent OECD report on 2020 tax reforms reveals an increase in the number of environmentally-related tax policies, including gas taxes, carbon taxes, and taxes on electricity consumption.

5 min read
target property tax reforms, net wealth transfer taxes, property transfer taxes

More Countries Target the Property Tax

A recent OECD report reveals a tendency towards higher property taxes, often in the form of base broadening, tax rate increases, or both.

5 min read
Learn more about the proposed Canada digital tax. Canada digital services tax

Higher Taxes Might Not Be the Solution for Canada and its Provinces

First, the introduction of the wealth tax would significantly impact international capital flows and cause large economic dislocations in the short term. Second, provinces that are looking at raising their corporate tax rates might hinder capital attraction, growth, and economic recovery.

4 min read