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EU Tax Data

Providing journalists, taxpayers, and policymakers with the latest data on taxes and spending is a cornerstone of the Tax Foundation’s educational mission.

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Our EU tax policy team regularly provides accessible, data-driven insights from sources such as the European Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), and others.

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180 Results
2021 wine taxes in Europe. Compare excise duty on wine, including germany wine tax, spain wine tax, and france wine tax

Wine Taxes in Europe

As one might expect, southern European countries that are well-known for their wines—such as France, Greece, Portugal, and Spain—either don’t tax it or do so at a very low rate. But travel north and you’ll see countries that tend to levy taxes on wine—and often hefty taxes.

2 min read
2021 beer taxes in europe. Beer excise tax rates in Europe. Compare tax on beer in Germany with tax on beer in Ireland on International Beer Day 2021

Beer Taxes in Europe

Finland has the highest excise tax on beer in Europe, followed by Ireland and the United Kingdom. Compare beer taxes in Europe this International Beer Day

2 min read
Territorial tax systems in Europe 2021 exemption of foreign-sourced dividend and capital gains income from domestic taxation in Europe

Territoriality of Tax Systems in Europe

19 European OECD countries employ a fully territorial tax system, exempting all foreign-sourced dividend and capital gains income from domestic taxation. No European OECD country operates a worldwide tax system.

3 min read
2021 Thin-Cap rules, 2021 thin-capitalization rules in Europe to discourage international debt shifting

Thin-Cap Rules in Europe

To discourage this form of international debt shifting, many countries have implemented so-called thin-capitalization rules (thin-cap rules), which limit the amount of interest a multinational business can deduct for tax purposes.

5 min read
Controlled Foreign Corporation CFC Rules in Europe base erosion and profit shifting 2021

CFC Rules in Europe

To prevent businesses from minimizing their tax liability by taking advantage of cross-country differences, countries have implemented various anti-tax avoidance measures, such as the so-called Controlled Foreign Corporation (CFC) rules.

5 min read
VAT Exemption Thresholds in Europe 2021

VAT Exemption Thresholds in Europe

To reduce tax compliance and administrative costs, most countries have VAT exemption thresholds: If a business is below a certain annual revenue threshold, it is not required to participate in the VAT system.

2 min read
2021 NOL Carryforward Policies in Europe

Net Operating Loss Carryforward and Carryback Provisions in Europe

Many companies have investment projects with different risk profiles and operate in industries that fluctuate greatly with the business cycle. Carryover provisions help businesses “smooth” their risk and income, making the tax code more neutral across investments and over time.

6 min read
value added tax bases in Europe VAT bases in Europe 2021 vat revenue ratio rate on final consumption

VAT Bases in Europe

As economic activity resumes and the task of accounting for the deficits incurred in navigating the crisis of the past year becomes the focus of fiscal policy deliberations, a greater reliance on VAT could be an important tool in ensuring fiscal stability going forward. Countries should use this as an opportunity to improve VAT systems by re-examining carveouts in the form of exemptions and reduced rates.

2 min read
Reduced Corporate Income Tax Rates for Small Businesses in Europe 2021

Reduced Corporate Income Tax Rates for Small Businesses in Europe

Corporate income taxes are commonly levied as a flat rate on business profits. However, some countries provide reduced corporate income tax rates for small businesses. Out of 27 European OECD countries covered in today’s map, eight levy a reduced corporate tax rate on businesses that have revenues or profits below a certain threshold.

3 min read
2021 Carbon Taxes in Europe Which European Countries have a carbon European Countries have a carbon tax Sweden

Carbon Taxes in Europe

In recent years, several countries have taken measures to reduce carbon emissions, including instituting environmental regulations, emissions trading systems (ETS), and carbon taxes.

2 min read
Tax Relief for Families in Europe 2021 countries provide tax relief for families vs single worker without children

Tax Relief for Families in Europe

Most countries provide tax relief to families with children—typically through targeted tax breaks that lower income taxes. While all European OECD countries provide tax relief for families, its extent varies substantially across countries.

2 min read
Top statutory personal income tax rates in Europe 2021

Top Personal Income Tax Rates in Europe, 2021

Most countries’ personal income taxes have a progressive structure, meaning that the tax rate paid by individuals increases as they earn higher wages. The highest tax rate individuals pay differs significantly across Europe, with Denmark (55.9 percent), France (55.4 percent), and Austria (55 percent) having the highest top statutory personal income tax rates among European OECD countries.

3 min read
Estate taxes in Europe, Estate tax inheritance tax Gift taxes in Europe EU European Union 2021

Estate, Inheritance, and Gift Taxes in Europe

Estate tax is levied on the property of the deceased and is paid by the estate itself. Inheritance taxes, in contrast, are only levied on the value of assets transferred and are paid by the heirs. Gift taxes are levied when property is transferred by a living individual. The majority of European countries covered in today’s map currently levy estate, inheritance, or gift taxes.

2 min read
Inventory Valuation Method in Europe 2021, First-in, First-out (FIFO); Last-in, First-out (LIFO);

Inventory Valuation in Europe

The method by which a country allows businesses to account for inventories can significantly impact a business’s taxable income. When prices are rising, as is usually the case due to factors like inflation, LIFO is the preferred method because it allows inventory costs to be closer to true costs at the time of sale.

2 min read
2021 corporate tax rates in Europe, 2021 corporate income tax rates in Europe, 2021 corporate taxes in Europe, 2021 corporate tax rates in Europe

Corporate Income Tax Rates in Europe, 2021

On average, European OECD countries currently levy a corporate income tax rate of 21.7 percent. This is below the worldwide average which, measured across 177 jurisdictions, was 23.9 percent in 2020.

2 min read
Bank Taxes in Europe 2021 Bank Tax, financial stability contributions, 2008 financial crisis tax

Bank Taxes in Europe

Today’s map shows which European OECD countries implemented financial stability contributions (FSCs), commonly referred to as “bank taxes.”

2 min read
Property taxes in Europe 2021 reliance on property tax revenue in Europe, 2021 property tax rates in Europe

Reliance on Property Taxes in Europe

Property taxes are levied on the assets of an individual or business. There are different types of property taxes, with recurrent taxes on immovable property (such as property taxes on land and buildings) the only ones levied by all countries covered. Other types of property taxes include estate, inheritance, and gift taxes, net wealth taxes, and taxes on financial and capital transactions.

1 min read