Today’s map zeroes in on states that have a “marriage penaltyA marriage penalty is when a household’s overall tax bill increases due to a couple marrying and filing taxes jointly. A marriage penalty typically occurs when two individuals with similar incomes marry; this is true for both high- and low-income couples. ” in their individual income taxA tax is a mandatory payment or charge collected by local, state, and national governments from individuals or businesses to cover the costs of general government services, goods, and activities. brackets. Under a graduated-rate income tax system, a taxpayer’s marginal income is subject to progressively higher tax rates. A marriage penalty or “marriage tax penalty” exists when a state’s income brackets for married taxpayers filing jointly are less than double the bracket widths that apply to single filers. In other words, married couples who file jointly under this scenario have a higher effective tax rate than they would if they filed as two single individuals with the same amount of combined income.
This non-neutral tax treatment is particularly harmful to owners of pass-through businessA pass-through business is a sole proprietorship, partnership, or S corporation that is not subject to the corporate income tax; instead, this business reports its income on the individual income tax returns of the owners and is taxed at individual income tax rates. es, whose business income is taxed under the individual income taxAn individual income tax (or personal income tax) is levied on the wages, salaries, investments, or other forms of income an individual or household earns. The U.S. imposes a progressive income tax where rates increase with income. The Federal Income Tax was established in 1913 with the ratification of the 16th Amendment. Though barely 100 years old, individual income taxes are the largest source of tax revenue in the U.S. system. Subsequently, under a state marriage penalty, married business owners are subject to higher effective tax rates on their business income than they would be otherwise.
Sixteen states have a marriage penalty in their individual income taxes. Fifteen of those are built into their bracket structure. Washington notably does not have a wage income tax but instead levies a capital gains taxA capital gains tax is levied on the profit made from selling an asset and is often in addition to corporate income taxes, frequently resulting in double taxation. Capital gains taxes create a bias against saving, leading to a lower level of national income by encouraging present consumption over investment. with a $250,000 filing threshold. Because this threshold is not doubled for married filers, the state has an unconventional marriage penalty.
Seven additional states (Arkansas, Delaware, Iowa, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, and West Virginia), as well as the District of Columbia, fail to double bracket widths but offset their marriage penalty in the bracket structure by allowing married taxpayers to file separately on the same return, avoiding loss of credits and exemptions. Ten states have a graduated-rate income tax but double their brackets to avoid a state marriage penalty: Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Nebraska, and Oregon.
The ability to file separately on the same return is important in states that do not double bracket widths, and so is the ability to do so even if the couple files jointly for federal purposes. While married couples have the option of filing separately—though some states only allow this if it is also done on their federal forms—this normally creates a disadvantage. It either disallows or reduces the value of deductions and credits available to the family jointly, which is also a form of state marriage penalty. Filing separately on the same return eliminates this problem, but is slightly more complex than doubling tax bracketA tax bracket is the range of incomes taxed at given rates, which typically differ depending on filing status. In a progressive individual or corporate income tax system, rates rise as income increases. There are seven federal individual income tax brackets; the federal corporate income tax system is flat. s for joint filers so that there is no penalty for filing jointly.Share