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The Tax Foundation is the world’s leading independent tax policy 501(c)(3) nonprofit. For over 80 years, our mission has remained the same: to improve lives through tax policies that lead to greater economic growth and opportunity.

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universal basic income ubi andrew yang, means-tested transfers

States Respond to Strong Fiscal Health with Income Tax Reforms

As states close their books for fiscal year 2021, many have much more revenue on hand than they anticipated last year. Eleven states have responded by reducing income tax rates and making related structural reforms as they strive to solidify a competitive advantage in an increasingly competitive national landscape.

29 min read
2021 Thin-Cap rules, 2021 thin-capitalization rules in Europe to discourage international debt shifting

Thin-Cap Rules in Europe

To discourage this form of international debt shifting, many countries have implemented so-called thin-capitalization rules (thin-cap rules), which limit the amount of interest a multinational business can deduct for tax purposes.

5 min read
US households saved their COVID-19 economic impact payments during the pandemic

Census Data Shows Households Saved Economic Impact Payments

In 2020 and 2021, Congress enacted three rounds of economic impact payments (EIPs) for direct relief to households amidst the pandemic-induced downturn. Survey data from the U.S. Census Bureau indicates that households increasingly saved their EIPs or used them to pay down debt rather than spend them.

5 min read
2021 sales taxes by state, 2021 sales tax rates by state, 2021 state and local sales tax rates July 2021

State and Local Sales Tax Rates, Midyear 2021

The highest average combined state and local sales tax rates are in Louisiana (9.55 percent), Tennessee (9.547 percent), Arkansas (9.48 percent), Washington (9.29 percent), and Alabama (9.22 percent).

12 min read
Controlled Foreign Corporation CFC Rules in Europe base erosion and profit shifting 2021

CFC Rules in Europe

To prevent businesses from minimizing their tax liability by taking advantage of cross-country differences, countries have implemented various anti-tax avoidance measures, such as the so-called Controlled Foreign Corporation (CFC) rules.

5 min read
2021 state property taxes, How high are property taxes in your state? Compare property taxes by state (states with the highest property taxes) and property taxes paid as a percentage of owner-occupied housing value.

How High Are Property Taxes in Your State?

Because property taxes are tied to housing values, it makes sense that the actual dollar amounts of property taxes tend to be higher in places with higher housing prices. This map takes housing value into account to give a broader perspective for property tax comparison.

3 min read
VAT Exemption Thresholds in Europe 2021

VAT Exemption Thresholds in Europe

To reduce tax compliance and administrative costs, most countries have VAT exemption thresholds: If a business is below a certain annual revenue threshold, it is not required to participate in the VAT system.

2 min read
2021 state beer excise tax rates. Compare 2021 state beer taxes (2021 state beer tax rates)

How High Are Beer Taxes in Your State?

2021 state beer excise tax rates vary widely: as low as $0.02 per gallon in Wyoming and as high as $1.29 per gallon in Tennessee. Missouri and Wisconsin tie for second lowest at $0.06 per gallon, and Alaska is second highest with its $1.07 per gallon tax.

2 min read
Since 2017 tax reform, US corporate tax expenditures are about average in the OECD. Reuters us corporate tax in line with foreign rivals

U.S. Corporate Tax Expenditures and Effective Tax Rates in Line with OECD Peers

Last week, an analysis by Reuters suggested that U.S. firms pay less income tax than foreign competitors, in part because “the U.S. tax code is unusually generous with tax breaks and deductions,” also known as corporate tax expenditures. However, the Reuters analysis is at odds with other data and studies indicating that U.S. corporate tax expenditures and effective tax rates are about on par with those in peer countries in the OECD.

3 min read
2022 state tax changes effective January 1, 2022 child tax credit changes and child tax credit reform options 2021 state tax changes July 1 2021 US business tax collections remained close to historical norm in 2018. US business tax revenue and taxes paid by pass-through firms

State Tax Changes Taking Effect July 1, 2021

Thirteen states have notable tax changes taking effect on July 1, 2021, which is the first day of fiscal year (FY) 2022 for every state except Alabama, Michigan, New York, and Texas. Individual and corporate income tax changes usually take effect at the beginning of the calendar year for the sake of maintaining policy consistency throughout the tax year, but sales and excise tax changes often correspond with the beginning of a fiscal year.

11 min read
2021 NOL Carryforward Policies in Europe

Net Operating Loss Carryforward and Carryback Provisions in Europe, 2021

Many companies have investment projects with different risk profiles and operate in industries that fluctuate greatly with the business cycle. Carryover provisions help businesses “smooth” their risk and income, making the tax code more neutral across investments and over time.

7 min read
2021 Wine States by State

How High Are Wine Taxes in Your State?

States tend to tax wine at a higher rate than beer but at a lower rate than distilled spirits due to wine’s mid-range alcohol content. You’ll find the highest wine excise taxes in Kentucky at $3.23 per gallon, far above Alaska’s second-place $2.50 per gallon. Those states are followed by Florida ($2.25), Iowa ($1.75), and Alabama and New Mexico (tied at $1.70).

2 min read
Worldwide investment at risk as business tax reform critical to capital investment costs expire and phase out Child Tax Credit changes and Child Tax credit reform options States should follow federal lead in postponing tax day

Net Operating Loss Policies in the OECD

During the COVID-19 pandemic, several OECD countries temporarily expanded their NOL carrybacks and carryforwards to provide relief to illiquid but otherwise solvent businesses. These policies should be made permanent and, where necessary, expanded.

21 min read
value added tax bases in Europe VAT bases in Europe 2021 vat revenue ratio rate on final consumption

VAT Bases in Europe

As economic activity resumes and the task of accounting for the deficits incurred in navigating the crisis of the past year becomes the focus of fiscal policy deliberations, a greater reliance on VAT could be an important tool in ensuring fiscal stability going forward. Countries should use this as an opportunity to improve VAT systems by re-examining carveouts in the form of exemptions and reduced rates.

2 min read
2021 distilled spirits taxes, compare 2021 state distilled spirits taxes (2021 state liquor taxes and tax rates)

Distilled Spirits Taxes by State, 2021

Of all alcoholic beverages subject to taxation, stiff drinks—and all distilled spirits—face the stiffest tax rates. Like many excise taxes, the treatment of distilled spirits varies widely across the states.

3 min read