Skip to content

All Research and Data

The Tax Foundation is the world’s leading independent tax policy 501(c)(3) nonprofit. For over 80 years, our mission has remained the same: to improve lives through tax policies that lead to greater economic growth and opportunity.

Our Center for Federal Tax PolicyCenter for State Tax Policy, and Center for Global Tax Policy each produce timely and high-quality research and analysis that influences the debate toward economically principled tax policies. Our experts are continuously analyzing the day’s most relevant tax policy topics and are relied upon routinely for presentations, testimony, and media appearances on tax issues spanning every level of government.

Likewise, providing journalists, taxpayers, and policymakers with basic data on taxes and spending has been a cornerstone of the Tax Foundation’s educational mission since its founding. As we wrote in our first edition of Facts & Figures in 1941, “Facts give a broader perspective; facts dissipate predilections and prejudices…[and are] an important step to meet the challenge presented by the broad problems of public finance.”

View All Research     View All Data

All Related Articles

2316 Results
Compare 2021 patent box regimes in Europe (Patent box Europe data). Explore intellectual property box regimes in the EU Europe, also known as IP regimes in the EU Europe

Patent Box Regimes in Europe

Patent box regimes (also referred to as intellectual property, or IP, regimes) provide lower effective tax rates on income derived from IP. Most commonly, eligible types of IP are patents and software copyrights. Currently, 14 of the 27 EU member states have a patent box regime.

4 min read
Ireland consultation on OECD international tax proposals ,Tax Foundation Response to Ireland Department of Finance Consultation Document: Consultation on OECD International Tax Proposals

Tax Foundation Response to Ireland Department of Finance Consultation Document: Consultation on OECD International Tax Proposals

The recent effort to change international tax rules has been one of significant contradictions. The proposals have been driven by arguments about the need to raise additional revenues, to stabilize corporate tax rates, or to prevent offshoring. However, upon closer examination, these three arguments fail to capture what is occurring.

7 min read
congressional districts impacted by Biden corporate tax plan, New York City, LA, and San Francisco bay area

Top Ten Congressional Districts Impacted by Biden Corporate Tax Proposals

The Biden corporate tax plan would disproportionately harm these congressional districts and make the U.S. less internationally competitive. These tax hikes, along with individual tax increases, would also raise taxes on net for 96 percent of congressional districts by 2031 after these temporary credits expire in 2025.

2 min read
Ways & means tax proposal seeks to combat extraterritorial taxes and discriminatory taxes Global minimum tax revenue OECD Pillar Two revenue OECD impact assessment OECD Pillar One tax Pillar one amount a Biden interest limitation Biden interest deduction rule Biden interest expense limitation Business interest expense limitation Democrat Senate international tax overhaul discussion draft legislation (Wyden Brown Warner international tax overhaul) or Sen Wyden international tax plan,

Tax Foundation Comments on the Wyden, Warner, Brown Discussion Draft

The proposed restructuring of the GILTI and FDII regimes makes several changes to the tax base that are largely offsetting, leaving virtually all the revenue potential to be determined by the tax rates on GILTI and FDII and the haircuts on foreign tax credits. Lawmakers should carefully weigh the trade-offs between higher tax revenues and competitiveness.

12 min read
Cigarette tax Europe, cigarette taxes in the EU, Cigarette taxes in Europe and Cigarette tax rates in Europe 2021, European cigarette taxes

Cigarette Taxes in Europe

Ireland and France levy the highest excise duties on cigarettes in the EU, at €8.42 ($9.60) and €6.61 ($7.53) per 20-cigarette pack, respectively. This compares to an EU average of €3.34 ($3.80). Bulgaria (€1.81 or $2.06) and Poland (€2.08 or $2.37) levy the lowest excise duties.

2 min read
Property taxes by county. Explore 2021 county property tax paid map. Which county has the highest property tax rate? Are property taxes by city or county? Who pays the most property taxes in America?

Where Do People Pay the Most in Property Taxes?

The six counties with the highest median property tax payments all have bills exceeding $10,000—Bergen, Essex, and Union Counties in New Jersey, and Nassau, Rockland, and Westchester counties in New York. All six are near New York City, as is the next highest, Passaic County, New Jersey ($9,881).

3 min read
EU excise duty on alcohol 2021 distilled spirits taxes in Europe. 2021 liquor taxes in Europe

Distilled Spirits Taxes in Europe

The highest excise duties are applied in Finland, Sweden, and Ireland, where the rates for a standard-size bottle of liquor are €14.10 ($16.08), €13.80 ($15.73), and €11.92 ($13.59), respectively.

1 min read
State and local tax deduction benefit by county, compare state and local taxes impact of SALT deduction benefit by county. SALT deduction benefit analysis

Reviewing Benefits of the State and Local Tax Deduction by County in 2018

It is important to understand how the SALT deduction’s benefits have changed since the SALT cap was put into place in 2018 before repealing the cap or making the deduction more generous. Doing so would disproportionately benefit higher earners, making the tax code more regressive.

6 min read
Money and 1040 forms symbolizing the new federal income tax returns

Sources of Personal Income, Tax Year 2018

Reviewing the sources of personal income shows that the personal income tax is largely a tax on labor, primarily because our personal income is mostly derived from labor. However, varied sources of capital income also play a role in American incomes. While capital income sources are small compared to labor income, they are still significant and need to be accounted for, both by policymakers trying to collect revenue efficiently and by those attempting to understand the distribution of personal income.

10 min read
2021 wine taxes in Europe. Compare excise duty on wine, including germany wine tax, spain wine tax, and france wine tax

Wine Taxes in Europe

As one might expect, southern European countries that are well-known for their wines—such as France, Greece, Portugal, and Spain—either don’t tax it or do so at a very low rate. But travel north and you’ll see countries that tend to levy taxes on wine—and often hefty taxes.

2 min read
2021 state individual alternative minimum tax amt by state california individual alternative minimum tax colorado individual alternative minimum tax

Does Your State Have an Individual Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)?

The original goal of AMTs—to prevent deductions from eliminating income tax liability altogether—can be accomplished best by simplifying the existing tax structure, not by creating an alternative tax which adds complexity and lacks transparency and neutrality.

2 min read
sales tax rates by city, cities with highest sales tax rate, city highest sales tax rate, cities with the highest sales tax

Sales Tax Rates in Major Cities, Midyear 2021

Neither Anchorage, Alaska, nor Portland, Oregon, impose any state or local sales taxes. Honolulu, Hawaii, has a low rate of 4.5 percent and several other major cities, including Milwaukee and Madison, Wisconsin, keep overall rates modest.

13 min read