A new piece of legislation has the potential to bridge a disconnect between social reforms and taxA tax is a mandatory payment or charge collected by local, state, and national governments from individuals or businesses to cover the costs of general government services, goods, and activities. policy. Introduced today by Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) in the Senate, and by Rep. Richard Neal (D-MA) in the House, the Refund Equality Act would resolve a filing dilemma faced by married same-sex couples. The problem arises from the mismatched timing of IRS regulation changes and state-level same-sex marriage legalization.
In general, all married couples face two time limitations to amending federal income tax returns. The first restricts married filers to filing jointly within three years of filing separate returns. The second imposes a three-year maximum on credit or refund claims for tax overpayment.
Due to the structure of income tax bracketA tax bracket is the range of incomes taxed at given rates, which typically differ depending on filing status. In a progressive individual or corporate income tax system, rates rise as income increases. There are seven federal individual income tax brackets; the federal corporate income tax system is flat. s, couples with disparate incomes can often save money by filing jointly. The wider tax brackets available to married couples allow for much of a couple’s income to fall into a lower bracket, which can reduce their overall tax rate, creating a marriage bonusA marriage bonus is when a household’s overall tax bill decreases due to a couple marrying and filing taxes jointly. Marriage bonuses typically occur when two individuals with disparate incomes marry. Marriage penalties are also possible. .
Before the 2013 Supreme Court ruling in United States vs. Windsor, same-sex couples were not allowed to file joint federal income taxes. After the ruling, the IRS updated its guidelines to allow same-sex couples to amend old returns to reflect their marital status. This allowed married same-sex couples to claim overpayment credits for the years in which they were married but were unable to file jointly.
The impact of the IRS’s actions is hampered by the restrictions on claims. Since certain jurisdictions adopted marriage equality long before the 2013 ruling, some married same-sex couples were forced to file separate federal income taxes for years. With the limitations in place, these couples cannot amend their returns to claim reimbursement credits for tax years prior to 2010.
The Refund Equality Act would provide an exemption to the time limitations on amending statements so that married same-sex couples can file federal income tax adjustments back to the year of marriage. For some couples, this could make a big difference. Since Massachusetts legalized same-sex marriage in 2004, couples married in the state would be able to claim credits for taxes paid over the course of nine years.
The proposal doesn’t make a major alteration to federal tax policy, since there are already several exemptions to claim limitations. For example, veterans whose retirement funding was reduced due to receiving disability compensation have extra time to file a claim for overpayment. Someone who pays too much in federal individual income taxAn individual income tax (or personal income tax) is levied on the wages, salaries, investments, or other forms of income an individual or household earns. The U.S. imposes a progressive income tax where rates increase with income. The Federal Income Tax was established in 1913 with the ratification of the 16th Amendment. Though barely 100 years old, individual income taxes are the largest source of tax revenue in the U.S. es due to foreign tax payments can also receive a claim extension.
While the individual impact could be significant, enacting the proposal wouldn’t cost much. The Joint Committee on Taxation estimates that the proposal would cost the federal government $67 million. This is miniscule compared to the $1.4 trillion in net income tax collected in 2016.
The proposal would affect around 48,000 same-sex couples who married prior to 2011. Given the Joint Committee’s estimate, each couple could gain around $1,400 in credits from the proposal.
Extending the time limitation on overpayment claims for married same-sex couples introduces equity into the tax code. It’s a simple fix that could go a long way for the couples who benefit from the legislation.Share