It’s a compelling talking point in Washington state, and it’s a key argument behind Seattle’s proposed income taxA tax is a mandatory payment or charge collected by local, state, and national governments from individuals or businesses to cover the costs of general government services, goods, and activities. ordinance: a progressive state has the most regressive tax code in the nation. The claim comes from the Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy (ITEP), which publishes an occasional study called “Who Pays?” But does the claim stand up to scrutiny?
All distributional analyses are estimates and require certain stylized assumptions to be made, assumptions which won’t perfectly correspond with the real world. It’s important, though, for those assumptions to be as realistic as possible, and here, ITEP’s approach has some serious shortcomings. Here are some points to bear in mind when considering ITEP’s result.
- It omits wide swaths of the tax code. The ITEP study only looks at sales and excise taxAn excise tax is a tax imposed on a specific good or activity. Excise taxes are commonly levied on cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, soda, gasoline, insurance premiums, amusement activities, and betting, and typically make up a relatively small and volatile portion of state and local and, to a lesser extent, federal tax collections. es (the B&O is included under this header), income taxes, and property taxA property tax is primarily levied on immovable property like land and buildings, as well as on tangible personal property that is movable, like vehicles and equipment. Property taxes are the single largest source of state and local revenue in the U.S. and help fund schools, roads, police, and other services. es. That is not, of course, anything close to the full extent of Washington’s tax code, which also includes an estate taxAn estate tax is imposed on the net value of an individual’s taxable estate, after any exclusions or credits, at the time of death. The tax is paid by the estate itself before assets are distributed to heirs. , a leasehold tax, severance taxes, transit authority taxes, public utility taxes, insurance premium taxes, and more. How can one make claims about the overall distributional impact of state and local taxes when significant portions of the tax code are excluded from the analysis?
- It misclassifies a major tax it does include. Washington’s B&O tax, a high-rate gross receipts taxA gross receipts tax is a tax applied to a company’s gross sales, without deductions for a firm’s business expenses, like costs of goods sold and compensation. Unlike a sales tax, a gross receipts tax is assessed on businesses and apply to business-to-business transactions in addition to final consumer purchases, leading to tax pyramiding. , is classified as a sales taxA sales tax is levied on retail sales of goods and services and, ideally, should apply to all final consumption with few exemptions. Many governments exempt goods like groceries; base broadening, such as including groceries, could keep rates lower. A sales tax should exempt business-to-business transactions which, when taxed, cause tax pyramiding. by ITEP and distributed accordingly. This is due to data limitations; ITEP relies on Census Bureau classifications, and Census classifies B&O revenue as general sales tax revenue. The “Who Pays?” methodology assumes that sales taxes are highly regressive, so the B&O contributes substantially to the state’s regressivity under their model. But there’s no reason to think that B&O distributional effects align with sales taxes, and this produces the curious result something like increasing the B&O rate on services—a cause championed by Governor Jay Inslee (D) and others on the left—would be considered an extremely regressive move under ITEP’s flawed methodology.
- It improperly includes one cherry-picked provision of the federal tax code. The ITEP report includes one major element of federal tax policy, the federal income tax deductionA tax deduction is a provision that reduces taxable income. A standard deduction is a single deduction at a fixed amount. Itemized deductions are popular among higher-income taxpayers who often have significant deductible expenses, such as state/local taxes paid, mortgage interest, and charitable contributions. for state and local taxes paid, presumably because it’s regressive. Other, highly progressive, features of the federal income tax code are not incorporated. The result is that state tax systems—in Washington and elsewhere—look more regressive in this study than they actually are. Either ITEP should include all aspects of the federal tax code or none.
- It uses a controversial approach to calculating tax distributions. ITEP uses a “snapshot” rather than “lifetime” income approach in calculating tax distributions, which yields findings of substantially greater regressivity. For instance, a law school student can show up as extremely low-income, and have outlays well in excess of income, but it is not very meaningful to think of someone with a future of high income as being subject to regressive taxA regressive tax is one where the average tax burden decreases with income. Low-income taxpayers pay a disproportionate share of the tax burden, while middle- and high-income taxpayers shoulder a relatively small tax burden. ation. The same goes for a wealthy retiree with more assets than income. A better methodology would recognize the difference between stocks and flows.
- It considers state and local taxes in a vacuum, and defines all state tax codes as regressive. There may be value in examining the progressivity or regressivity of state and local tax structures on their own, but actual taxpayers also pay federal taxes, which tend to be quite progressive and yield a progressive overall tax structure. Notably, ITEP’s methodology always leads to the same conclusion, that state tax codes are too regressive. California has a highly progressive taxA progressive tax is one where the average tax burden increases with income. High-income families pay a disproportionate share of the tax burden, while low- and middle-income taxpayers shoulder a relatively small tax burden. code with a ten-bracket individual income taxAn individual income tax (or personal income tax) is levied on the wages, salaries, investments, or other forms of income an individual or household earns. The U.S. imposes a progressive income tax where rates increase with income. The Federal Income Tax was established in 1913 with the ratification of the 16th Amendment. Though barely 100 years old, individual income taxes are the largest source of tax revenue in the U.S. with a top rate of 13.3 percent, but ITEP concludes that low-income families are taxed more heavily than high-income earners. The same goes for Connecticut, where Democratic Governor Dannel Malloy is on record saying that the state cannot afford to tax the rich any more than they already do. ITEP reaches the same result for Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, and Vermont. If their methodology finds that no state is progressive enough, what does the word even mean? (For a lengthier, footnoted treatment of the methodological shortcomings of the “Who Pays?” report, see here.)
None of this means that policymakers shouldn’t care about the distribution of state and local taxes, but it does suggest caution in relying too heavily on ITEP’s claims about the Washington state tax code. It also raises an interesting question: while surely it doesn’t make sense to treat the B&O as a sales tax, as ITEP does, how does it perform distributionally? There’s good reason to think that, while it may not be as regressive as ITEP assumes, the economic incidence of the tax does fall disproportionately on lower- and middle-income earners. That ought to give policymakers pause about turning to ever-higher B&O rates as a revenue expedient.Share