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Erica York Tax Foundation
Expert

Erica York

Senior Economist, Research Director

Erica York is Senior Economist and Research Director with Tax Foundation’s Center for Federal Tax Policy. She previously worked as an auditor at a large community bank in Kansas and interned at Tax Foundation’s Center for State Tax Policy.

Her analysis has been featured in The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Politico, and other national and international media outlets. She holds a master’s degree in Economics from Wichita State University and an undergraduate degree in Business Administration and Economics from Sterling (KS) College, where she is currently an adjunct professor. Erica lives in Kansas with her husband and their two children.

Latest Work

Lawmakers Could Pay for Reconciliation While Improving the Tax Code, pay for reconciliation tax proposal

Lawmakers Could Pay for Reconciliation While Improving the Tax Code

With corporate and individual rate hikes potentially out of the Build Back Better (BBB) reconciliation package, lawmakers are weighing alternative options to raise revenue. Rather than come up with untested proposals and complicated changes to the tax base, they should prioritize options that raise revenue while improving the structure of the tax code.

4 min read
Child Tax Credit debate Biden Democrats Child tax credit expansion, affect labor supply work requirement and incentive Manchin

What’s Going on with the Child Tax Credit Debate?

President Biden expanded and fundamentally changed the Child Tax Credit (CTC) for one year in the American Rescue Plan (ARP) passed in March 2021. Policymakers are now deciding the future of the expansion as part of the proposed reconciliation package, but a wide range of estimates for the effects of a permanent expansion is confusing the debate.

7 min read
Debt ceiling deal debt limit 2023 Ways and Means plan The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly House Democrats tax plan

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of the Ways and Means Plan

The latest version of the Biden Build Back Better agenda, released last week by the House Ways and Means committee, is dense, with too many provisions to flesh out completely. Here’s a rundown of the good, the bad, and the ugly of it.

7 min read
Learn more about the HR 3 prescription drug bill (the Elijah Cummings Lower Drug Costs Now Act) and how it could reduce R&D spending and medical innovation. See more on pharmaceutical company revenues, emerging biopharma companies, and HR3 bill text.

H.R. 3 Would Reduce R&D Spending and Medical Innovation

Lawmakers are considering policy changes within the reconciliation bill that would reduce private R&D within the pharmaceutical industry and reduce the number of new drugs coming to market. Instead of hampering medical progress, policymakers should work to ensure that the tax code remains conducive to R&D spending and the resulting innovation.

5 min read
Wyden tax proposals reconciliation Wyden tax reconciliation

Reviewing Wyden’s Reconciliation Tax Policy Proposals

Congressional lawmakers are putting together a reconciliation bill to enact much of President Biden’s Build Back Better agenda. Many lawmakers including Senate Finance Committee Chair Ron Wyden (D-OR), however, want to make their own mark on the legislation.

5 min read
congressional districts impacted by Biden corporate tax plan, New York City, LA, and San Francisco bay area

Top Ten Congressional Districts Impacted by Biden Corporate Tax Proposals

The Biden corporate tax plan would disproportionately harm these congressional districts and make the U.S. less internationally competitive. These tax hikes, along with individual tax increases, would also raise taxes on net for 96 percent of congressional districts by 2031 after these temporary credits expire in 2025.

2 min read
2022 state tax changes effective January 1, 2022 child tax credit changes and child tax credit reform options 2021 state tax changes July 1 2021 US business tax collections remained close to historical norm in 2018. US business tax revenue and taxes paid by pass-through firms

Temporary Policies Complicate the Child Tax Credit’s Future

Over the next ten years, the structure of the Child Tax Credit (CTC) is scheduled to change, complicating efforts to extend enhanced CTC benefits or reform the CTC for the long-term. Rather than take an all-or-nothing approach or kick the can down the road by relying on temporary expansions, lawmakers could consider alternative options that better target low-income households, retain work incentives, reduce the impact on federal revenue, and provide taxpayers with a stable, consistent tax code.

8 min read
emergency savings accounts retirement savings accounts Build Back Better plan inflation Build Back Better plan deficit carbon tax reconciliation hr3 tax prescription drugs tax help pay for reconciliation, revenue for federal government retirement savings federal reform proposals SECURE Act Securing a Strong Retirement Act of 2021

Lawmakers’ Tax Rate to Help Pay for Reconciliation is 1,900 Percent

While the excise tax penalty in H.R. 3 is referred to as a 95 percent tax rate, it actually amounts to a 1,900 percent tax rate because of how the proposal defines the tax base. In other words, under the H.R. 3 tax penalty, a drug that sells for $100 would incur a $1,900 tax.

3 min read
SALT cap repeal, State and local tax deduction cap repeal (state and local tax cap). Repealing the cap on the State and Local Tax Deduction would be regressive and mainly benefit the wealthy SALT deduction cap, House Ways and Means Committee testimony, impact of limiting SALT deduction, SALT deduction cap, State and Local Tax Deduction cap

Paying for Reconciliation Bill with “Health Care Savings” Threatens Medical Innovation

One of the ways lawmakers intend to pay for $3.5 trillion of new spending in the budget reconciliation package is by creating “health care savings.” The leading proposal to achieve this is H.R. 3, the Elijah Cummings Lower Drug Costs Now Act, which would change the way that prescription drug prices are negotiated under Medicare Part D.

5 min read
Claiming 97 Percent of Small Businesses Exempt from Biden Taxes Is Misleading. Fact-checking claim that 97 percent of small businesses wont pay income taxes under Biden tax plan

Claiming 97 Percent of Small Businesses Exempt from Biden Taxes Is Misleading

The Biden administration recently cited an analysis from Treasury claiming that “the President’s agenda will protect 97 percent of small business owners from income tax rate increases.” However, the figure is misleading. To assess the economic effect of higher marginal tax rates, it matters how much income or investment will be affected—not how many taxpayers.

3 min read
Money and 1040 forms symbolizing the new federal income tax returns

Sources of Personal Income, Tax Year 2018

Reviewing the sources of personal income shows that the personal income tax is largely a tax on labor, primarily because our personal income is mostly derived from labor. However, varied sources of capital income also play a role in American incomes. While capital income sources are small compared to labor income, they are still significant and need to be accounted for, both by policymakers trying to collect revenue efficiently and by those attempting to understand the distribution of personal income.

10 min read