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Erica York Tax Foundation
Expert

Erica York

Senior Economist, Research Director

Erica York is Senior Economist and Research Director with Tax Foundation’s Center for Federal Tax Policy. She previously worked as an auditor at a large community bank in Kansas and interned at Tax Foundation’s Center for State Tax Policy.

Her analysis has been featured in The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Politico, and other national and international media outlets. She holds a master’s degree in Economics from Wichita State University and an undergraduate degree in Business Administration and Economics from Sterling (KS) College, where she is currently an adjunct professor. Erica lives in Kansas with her husband and their two children.

Latest Work

Biden’s tax plan would be the one of the largest tax increase since the 1940s and one of the largest tax increases not associated with wartime funding, Biden's tax plan in historical context

Placing Joe Biden’s Tax Increases in Historical Context

If we consider Biden’s tax plan over the entire budget window (2021 to 2030) as a percentage of GDP—1.30 percent—it would rank as the 6th largest tax increase since the 1940s and and one of the largest tax increases not associated with wartime funding.

6 min read
us jobs lost during coronavirus, us jobs coronavirus us layoffs, US jobs data, US economy covid-19

Role of the 2017 Tax Reform in the Nascent U.S. Economic Recovery

While there is still plenty of work to be done to get unemployed Americans back to work, the U.S. economy as a whole is now recovering strongly from the pandemic-induced economic downturn, outperforming forecasts from earlier in the year and outperforming most other developed countries.

4 min read
CARES Act, Senate Coronavirus bill, Senate Coronavirus relief, Senate Coronavirus Aid

Reviewing the Commitment to American GROWTH Act

House Republicans recently introduced HR 11, the Commitment to American GROWTH Act, outlining an alternative to Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden’s tax vision. The proposal would address upcoming expirations of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) and create or expand other tax provisions designed to boost domestic investment.

5 min read
emergency savings accounts retirement savings accounts Build Back Better plan inflation Build Back Better plan deficit carbon tax reconciliation hr3 tax prescription drugs tax help pay for reconciliation, revenue for federal government retirement savings federal reform proposals SECURE Act Securing a Strong Retirement Act of 2021

CBO Releases New Long-term Budget Outlook

The pandemic precipitated the steepest decline in economic output and employment in recent history, which is leading to a drop in tax revenue. At the same time, the federal response to the crisis is producing a large increase in spending. This combination will cause the federal budget deficit to spike.

5 min read
President Trump tax plan and proposals second term

President Trump Outlines Second Term Tax Ideas

Broad themes of the president’s agenda include providing tax relief to individuals and tax credits to businesses that engage in desired activities, while the status of expiring TCJA provisions and tariffs seems uncertain.

4 min read
Biden Made in America manufacturing plan to boost R&D

Reviewing Joe Biden’s Tax Vision

Biden’s tax vision is twofold: higher taxes on high-income earners and businesses paired with more generous provisions for specific activities and households.

4 min read

Economic Recovery and Deductions for Worker Training

Tax treatment can affect investment decisions. Extending expensing treatment (full and immediate deductions) to all forms of capital investment, human and physical, would help facilitate sustainable long-run economic growth.

2 min read
Senator Harris’s Rent Relief Tax Credit is a Well-Intentioned Misfire

Estimating Neutral Cost Recovery’s Impact on Affordable Housing

Housing affordability was a major issue even before the COVID-19 crisis, but the current economic situation has made it more salient. Immediate support for people struggling makes sense now, but lawmakers should also consider long-term solutions to the problem of high rents, namely by expanding the supply of housing.

5 min read

Improved Cost Recovery Is A Wide-Ranging Policy Solution

Rather than limit improvements to certain sectors, lawmakers could pursue a broader policy of full expensing for all capital investment and neutral cost recovery for structures and clear the tax policy hurdles that currently stand in the way of private investment.

3 min read
state full expensing permanent to curb inflation Cost Recovery and Full Expensing

FAQ on Neutral Cost Recovery and Expensing

Cost recovery is the way the tax code permits firms to recover (or deduct) the cost of making investments. Cost recovery plays an important role in defining a business’ taxable income and can impact investment decisions.

estimated economic impact of improved cost recovery by state

Estimated Impact of Improved Cost Recovery Treatment by State

We estimate that moving to permanent full expensing and neutral cost recovery for structures would add more than 1 million full-time equivalent jobs to the long-run economy and boost the long-run capital stock by $4.8 trillion.

4 min read

Full Expensing is Good for the Short Run and the Long Run

In the first year of enactment alone, we estimate the combination of full expensing and neutral cost recovery would increase full-time equivalent employment by more than 44,000 jobs. The cumulative impact by year five of the policy would be nearly 200,000 new jobs.

4 min read
Indirect tax definition corporate income tax base corporate tax base how neutral cost recovery works, factory, business equipment depreciation schedules

Answering Four Questions About How Neutral Cost Recovery Works in Practice

A neutral cost recovery system lowers the short-term cost of the policy to the federal government while providing nearly equivalent economic benefits. While neutral cost recovery is not a new idea, there are several policy questions lawmakers will want to consider when designing this system.

6 min read
cost recovery expensing capital allowances factory

Inefficiencies Created by the Tax System’s Dependence on Economic Depreciation

One idea that would help the nation’s economic recovery during the coronavirus crisis would be moving to full expensing of capital investment. The depreciation debate might seem confusing, so the question at hand is: how, when, and by what amount can businesses recognize (or recover) the cost of a capital investment, like a piece of equipment or a new warehouse, on their income tax return?

6 min read
Neutral Cost Recovery, Jack Kemp, Bob Kasten

Neutral Cost Recovery Is Not a New Idea

As stated by Rep. Jack Kemp in 1985, “Neutral cost recovery is designed to provide the present value of investment expensing without some of its practical problems.”

5 min read
Understanding the Tax Treatment of Inventory: The Role of LIFO

Options for Improving the Tax Treatment of Structures

Improving the tax treatment of structures is one of the most cost-effective tax policy changes available to lawmakers as they consider how to remove investment barriers in the tax code to hasten the economic recovery. Policymakers must weigh the trade-offs among long-run economic output goals, revenue constraints, and the existing stock of structures.

13 min read
White House considers capital gains tax cut, neutral cost recovery, full expensing amid coronavirus economic relief options, coronavirus business relief

White House Considers Neutral Cost Recovery for Structures

When considering long-term policies for increasing long-run levels of investment and economic growth, full expensing and neutral cost recovery are better targeted than policies like a capital gains cut.

6 min read