Skip to content

All Research and Data

The Tax Foundation is the world’s leading independent tax policy 501(c)(3) nonprofit. For over 80 years, our mission has remained the same: to improve lives through tax policies that lead to greater economic growth and opportunity.

Our Center for Federal Tax PolicyCenter for State Tax Policy, and Center for Global Tax Policy each produce timely and high-quality research and analysis that influences the debate toward economically principled tax policies. Our experts are continuously analyzing the day’s most relevant tax policy topics and are relied upon routinely for presentations, testimony, and media appearances on tax issues spanning every level of government.

Likewise, providing journalists, taxpayers, and policymakers with basic data on taxes and spending has been a cornerstone of the Tax Foundation’s educational mission since its founding. As we wrote in our first edition of Facts & Figures in 1941, “Facts give a broader perspective; facts dissipate predilections and prejudices…[and are] an important step to meet the challenge presented by the broad problems of public finance.”

View All Research     View All Data

All Related Articles

1245 Results
Real Property Taxes in Europe as of 2023 Tax Foundation European OECD Data of Real Property Tax Rates in Europe

Real Property Taxes in Europe

High property taxes levied not only on land but also on buildings and structures can discourage investment in infrastructure, which businesses would have to pay additional tax on.

2 min read
Tax treatment of electric vehicles ev taxes by state 2023 vehicle registration fees and EV tax credits

How Are Electric Vehicles Taxed in Your State?

The state EV taxation landscape reflects the evolving transportation sector and the pressing need to address both fiscal gaps in road funding and environmental concerns.

4 min read
Beer taxes in europe, including 2023 excise duty on beer in Europe for Oktoberfest

Beer Taxes in Europe

As Oktoberfest celebrations kick off around the world, let’s look at how much tax European Union (EU) countries add to the world’s favorite alcoholic beverage.

2 min read
2023 carbon tax rates in Europe and other information related to carbon taxes in Europe

Carbon Taxes in Europe, 2023

In recent years, several countries have taken measures to reduce carbon emissions, including instituting environmental regulations, emissions trading systems, and carbon taxes. In 1990, Finland was the world’s first country to introduce a carbon tax.

4 min read
Distribution of major US individual income tax credits on IRS tax form 1040

Summary of the Tax Credits Claimed on the Form 1040, Tax Year 2020

In tax year 2020, taxpayers claimed more than 159 million tax credits on their individual income tax returns worth a total of more than $277 billion. That was an increase of $35.3 billion from tax year 2019, largely due to an influx of pandemic relief administered through the tax code in 2020.

6 min read
2023 state gas tax rates by state California Illinois Pennsylvania

How High are Gas Taxes in Your State?

California pumps out the highest state gas tax rate of 77.9 cents per gallon (cpg), followed by Illinois (66.5 cpg) and Pennsylvania (62.2 cpg).

2 min read

Patent Box Regimes in Europe, 2023

The aim of patent boxes is generally to encourage and attract local research and development (R&D) and to incentivize businesses to locate IP in the country. However, patent boxes can introduce another level of complexity to a tax system, and some recent research questions whether patent boxes are actually effective in driving innovation.

3 min read

Capital Allowances in Europe, 2023

Capital allowances play an important role in a country’s corporate tax base and can impact investment decisions—with far-reaching economic consequences.

4 min read
Diesel and gas taxes in Europe 2023 fuel tax rates including diesel taxes and gas taxes in Europe

Diesel and Gas Taxes in Europe

As the EU pursues massive changes in public policy as part of its green transition, expect fuel taxes to be central to any policy discussions.

4 min read

Sources of Personal Income, Tax Year 2020

Reviewing reported income helps to understand the composition of the federal government’s revenue base and how Americans earn their taxable income. The individual income tax, the federal government’s largest source of revenue, is largely a tax on labor.

10 min read