In addition to rising prosperity, improved health and greater economic freedom, there may be another reason to praise globalization: it may lead to better taxA tax is a mandatory payment or charge collected by local, state, and national governments from individuals or businesses to cover the costs of general government services, goods, and activities. systems.
At least that’s the conclusion of new NBER working paper from Profs. Joshua Aizenman and Yothin Jinjarak, “Globalization and Developing Countries – A Shrinking Tax Base?“.
As we’ve written before, tax systems in poor countries vs. rich countries are radically different. Rich countries tend to rely on broadly based tax systems that tax income or consumption, while poor countries rely more on tariffTariffs are taxes imposed by one country on goods or services imported from another country. Tariffs are trade barriers that raise prices and reduce available quantities of goods and services for U.S. businesses and consumers. s, seignorage, and other non-tax revenue sources.
The reason is simple: efficient broad-based taxes are hard to collect in poor countries. Why? Because they have undeveloped banking systems, making auditA tax audit is when the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) conducts a formal investigation of financial information to verify an individual or corporation has accurately reported and paid their taxes. Selection can be at random, or due to unusual deductions or income reported on a tax return. s and enforcement impossible (imagine trying to enforce an income tax on street vendors in a village market). Instead, they rely on economically harmful but easy-to-collect taxes like tariffs, fees and seignorage.
But according to the Aizenman and Jinjarak, as developing countries have globalized and become financially integrated with the world in recent decades, they’re leaving behind their inefficient old tax systems. From the abstract:
We see globalization as a process that induces countries to embrace greater trade and financial integration, and macro stabilization. This in turn should shift their tax baseThe tax base is the total amount of income, property, assets, consumption, transactions, or other economic activity subject to taxation by a tax authority. A narrow tax base is non-neutral and inefficient. A broad tax base reduces tax administration costs and allows more revenue to be raised at lower rates. from “easy to collect” taxes [tariff, seigniorage, etc.] towards “hard to collect” taxes [VAT, income tax, etc.].
We confirm this prediction — the revenue/GDP ratio of the “easy to collect” taxes declined by about 20% in developing countries between the early 1980s and the late 1990s, while the revenue/GDP of the “hard to collect” taxes increased by 9%.