Skip to content

All Research and Data

The Tax Foundation is the world’s leading independent tax policy 501(c)(3) nonprofit. For over 80 years, our mission has remained the same: to improve lives through tax policies that lead to greater economic growth and opportunity.

Our Center for Federal Tax PolicyCenter for State Tax Policy, and Center for Global Tax Policy each produce timely and high-quality research and analysis that influences the debate toward economically principled tax policies. Our experts are continuously analyzing the day’s most relevant tax policy topics and are relied upon routinely for presentations, testimony, and media appearances on tax issues spanning every level of government.

Likewise, providing journalists, taxpayers, and policymakers with basic data on taxes and spending has been a cornerstone of the Tax Foundation’s educational mission since its founding. As we wrote in our first edition of Facts & Figures in 1941, “Facts give a broader perspective; facts dissipate predilections and prejudices…[and are] an important step to meet the challenge presented by the broad problems of public finance.”

View All Research     View All Data

All Related Articles

1244 Results
the payroll tax is regressive, while the income tax is progressive

New Report Shows the Burdens of Payroll and Income Taxes

The tax burden for most Americans in 2019 –67.8 percent—will come primarily from payroll taxes, not income taxes. While the income tax is progressive, with average rates rising with income, the payroll tax is regressive, with the highest average rate falling on Americans with the lowest incomes.

3 min read
Income changes over the course of an individual's life, average incomes rise with age, average income age income inequality

Average Income Tends to Rise with Age

Average income tends to rise dramatically as someone ages and gains education and experience. Viewing just one year of income tax data without digging any deeper misses some crucial context.

2 min read
Who Benefits from Itemized Deductions? High income taxpayers tax breaks

Who Benefits from Itemized Deductions?

While some tax preferences like the earned income tax credit (EITC) and child tax credit benefit lower- and middle-income households, others, like itemized deductions, benefit high-income households.

4 min read
marginal tax rates, taxes on the rich. top 1 percent tax rates, effective tax rate

The Top 1 Percent’s Tax Rates Over Time

In the 1950s, when the top marginal income tax rate reached 92 percent, the top 1 percent of taxpayers paid an effective rate of only 16.9 percent. As top marginal rates have fallen, the tax burden on the rich has risen.

4 min read
Income and payroll taxes make up a growing share of federal revenue, income tax, payroll tax, corporate tax, tax revenue, federal revenue

The Composition of Federal Revenue Has Changed Over Time

The federal income tax and federal payroll tax make up a growing share of federal revenue. Individual income taxes have become a central pillar of the federal revenue system, now comprising nearly half of all revenue.

2 min read