Special Report No. 30
Executive Summary A new corporate alternative minimum tax (AMT)The Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) is a separate tax system that requires some taxpayers to calculate their tax liability twice—first, under ordinary income tax rules, then under the AMT—and pay whichever amount is highest. The AMT has fewer preferences and different exemptions and rates than the ordinary system. was enacted as part of the TaxA tax is a mandatory payment or charge collected by local, state, and national governments from individuals or businesses to cover the costs of general government services, goods, and activities. Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86) to “serve one overriding objective,” according to the House Ways and Means CommitteeThe Committee on Ways and Means, more commonly referred to as the House Ways and Means Committee, is one of 29 U.S. House of Representative committees and is the chief tax-writing committee in the U.S. The House Ways and Means Committee has jurisdiction over all bills relating to taxes and other revenue generation, as well as spending programs like Social Security, Medicare, and unemployment insurance, among others. report. That objective was to ensure that profitable corporations would not “avoid significant tax liability by using various exclusions, deductions, and credits” to which they were otherwise entitled. Thus, the AMT was consistent with the general thrust of TRA86 to broaden the base of the personal and corporate income taxA corporate income tax (CIT) is levied by federal and state governments on business profits. Many companies are not subject to the CIT because they are taxed as pass-through businesses, with income reportable under the individual income tax. systems while lowering tax rates. Unfortunately, the other main theme of TRA86, simplification, was partly sacrificed in the process.
The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA) planted the seeds for the AMT by allowing corporations to reduce current taxes paid in years with, for example, large capital investments. However, Congress began to reassess the pro-capital investment philosophy of ERTA, particularly in response to publicity focusing on some major U. S. corporations paying little tax vet reporting significant “book” income. The AMT was enacted to ensure that these corporations pay some minimum level of current taxes.
This objective of the corporate AMT has been achieved: Tax collections from many corporations have significantly increased and collections are more evenly distributed among firms and among industries. In 1991, 30,400 corporations had AMT liabilities totaling $5.3 billion. The National Association of Manufacturers claims that the AMT has become “the primary tax system” for some major industries, such as the automotive, steel, and mining industries.
Unfortunately, the effect of the AMT goes beyond simply increasing taxes on corporations. The AMT is a disincentive to investment, hits companies particularly hard during economic slowdowns when they can least afford it, and adds substantial complexity to the tax system. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (OBRA93) contained modifications to the AMT which should alleviate some of these problems and investment disincentives. However, the tax continues to be controversial because its significant economic and compliance costs may exceed any intended policy gains.Share