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Tax Foundation Europe Data

Providing journalists, taxpayers, and policymakers with basic data on taxes and spending is a cornerstone of Tax Foundation Europe’s educational mission.

As a nonpartisan, educational organization, the Tax Foundation has earned a reputation for independence and credibility.

Our policy team regularly provides accessible, data-driven insights from sources such as the European Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), and others.

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patent box regimes in Europe 2022 patent box Europe EU intellectual property tax regime IP

Patent Box Regimes in Europe

Patent box regimes (also referred to as intellectual property, or IP, regimes) provide lower effective tax rates on income derived from IP. Most commonly, eligible types of IP are patents and software copyrights. Currently, 13 of the 27 EU member states have a patent box regime.

3 min read
Highest beer taxes in Europe on International Beer Day 2022 tax on beer in Ireland and tax on beer in germany. Compare lowest and highest beer tax in Europe

Beer Taxes in Europe

’Tis the season to crack open a cold one. Ahead of International Beer Day on August 5th, let’s take a minute to discover how much of your cash is actually going toward the cost of a brew with this week’s tax map, which explores excise duties on beer.

3 min read
2022 gas taxes in Europe Compare fuel tax rates and EU gas tax Europe map EU fuel excise duty

Gas Taxes in Europe

The Netherlands has the highest gas tax in the European Union, at €0.82 per liter ($3.69 per gallon). Italy applies the second highest rate at €0.73 per liter ($3.26 per gallon), followed by Finland at €0.72 per liter ($3.24 per gallon).

4 min read
Europe tax burden on labor Europe 2022 tax wedge

Tax Burden on Labor in Europe, 2022

To make the taxation of labor more efficient, policymakers should understand the inputs into the tax wedge, and taxpayers should understand how their tax burden funds government services.

3 min read
Carbon taxes in Europe 2022 carbon tax rates in Europe EU carbon tax

Carbon Taxes in Europe, 2022

In recent years, several countries have taken measures to reduce carbon emissions, including instituting environmental regulations, emissions trading systems, and carbon taxes. In 1990, Finland was the world’s first country to introduce a carbon tax.

3 min read
Cigarette taxes in the EU cigarette tax rates EU tobacco Europe taxes

Cigarette Taxes in Europe

Ireland and France levy the highest excise duties on cigarettes in the EU, at €8.85 ($10.47) and €6.88 ($8.13) per 20-cigarette pack, respectively.

3 min read
Wealth taxes in Europe 2022 net wealth tax countries. Which European countries have a wealth tax

Wealth Taxes in Europe, 2022

Only three European OECD countries levy a net wealth tax, namely Norway, Spain, and Switzerland.

3 min read
Tax Subsidies for R&D Expenditures in Europe

Tax Subsidies for R&D Expenditures in Europe

Many countries incentivize business investment in research and development (R&D), intending to foster innovation. A common approach is to provide direct government funding for R&D activity. However, a significant number of jurisdictions also offers R&D tax incentives.

3 min read
2022 Capital Gains Tax Rates in Europe 2022 Capital Gains Taxes in Europe OECD Individual Capital Gains Tax Rates

Capital Gains Tax Rates in Europe, 2022

In many countries, investment income, such as dividends and capital gains, is taxed at a different rate than wage income. Denmark levies the highest top capital gains tax among European OECD countries, followed by Norway, Finland, and France.

4 min read
2022 top personal income tax rates in europe top income tax rates in europe personal income rates europe 2022

Top Personal Income Tax Rates in Europe, 2022

Denmark (55.9 percent), France (55.4 percent), and Austria (55 percent) have the highest top statutory personal income tax rates among European OECD countries.

2 min read
2022 VAT rates in Europe, 2022 VAT rates by country, 2022 value-added tax rates in Europe and 2022 value-added tax rates by country

VAT Rates in Europe, 2022

The VAT is a consumption tax assessed on the value added in each production stage of a good or service. Every business along the value chain receives a tax credit for the VAT already paid. The end consumer does not, making it a tax on final consumption.

4 min read
Comparing Property Tax Systems in Europe, 2021 Comparing Europes Tax Systems Property Tax Systems Best and Worst Property Tax Systems

Comparing Europe’s Tax Systems: Property Taxes

According to the 2021 International Tax Competitiveness Index, Switzerland has the best-structured consumption tax among OECD countries while Poland has the worst-structured consumption tax code.

2 min read
2021 Consumption Tax Systems in Europe Comparing Consumption Tax Systems in Europe 2021 worst Consumption tax systems in Europe Consumption taxes in Europe

Comparing Europe’s Tax Systems: Consumption Taxes

According to the 2021 International Tax Competitiveness Index, Switzerland has the best-structured consumption tax among OECD countries while Poland has the worst-structured consumption tax code.

2 min read
Digital tax Europe Digital taxes in Europe Digital services taxes in Europe 2021 Pillar 1 global tax agreement

Digital Services Taxes in Europe, 2021

Despite ongoing multilateral negotiations in the OECD, about half of all European OECD countries have either announced, proposed, or implemented their own unilateral digital services tax.

7 min read
2021 Individual Income Tax Systems in Europe Comparing Income Tax Systems in Europe 2021 worst income tax systems in Europe

Comparing Europe’s Tax Systems: Individual Taxes

France’s individual income tax system is the least competitive of all OECD countries. It takes French businesses on average 80 hours annually to comply with the income tax.

3 min read