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Sebastian Dueñas

Written Works

International Rankings of Germany's Tax System. Learn more about Germany tax system.

How Controlled Foreign Corporation Rules Look Around the World: Germany

Germany has had a Controlled Foreign Corporation (CFC) regime since 1972, when the German Foreign Transactions Tax Act was enacted. Under the German regime, a CFC is a foreign company where its capital or voting rights are either directly or indirectly majority-owned by German residents at the end of its fiscal year.

6 min read
Spain digital services tax Spain falling behind on digitalization, Spain Digital Tax, Digital Services Tax

How Controlled Foreign Corporation Rules Look Around the World: Spain

The CFC legislation in Spain is not as complicated as it is in some other countries, and it is aligned with the standards recommended by the OECD. The Spanish rules have evolved in a way that the rules are designed to comply with the EU principles not to interrupt the functioning of the Union and its single market.

4 min read
China CFC rules, China Controlled Foreign Corporation rules, Chinese controlled foreign corporation rules, Chinese multinationals

How Controlled Foreign Corporation Rules Look Around the World: China

The Chinese approach to base erosion and profit shifting is more focused on the application of transfer pricing rules and not on the application of CFC rules. Even with the rules in place, the Chinese tax authorities have not enforced the rules as much as other countries have.

3 min read
Brexit, UK tax system, UK CFC rules, UK controlled foreign corporation, UK BEPS

How Controlled Foreign Corporation Rules Look Around the World: United Kingdom

The UK rules are designed to arrive at the most accurate definition of foreign income that should be taxed in the home country. These rules apply one of the most detailed approaches to solving the issue of taxing the right type and amount of foreign income. The method can be considered more effective, but the compliance implications and derived costs may be higher compared to those that are derived from the application of other methods.

7 min read
Netherlands Controlled Foreign Corporation Rules. Netherlands CFC rules, Dutch tax system, Netherlands corporate tax, Netherlands tax

How Controlled Foreign Corporation Rules Look Around the World: Netherlands

The Dutch tax system is characterized by its simplicity and the attractiveness to investors. With the incorporation of CFC rules, the Dutch government protected its tax base from erosion and profit shifting. The Netherlands is facing a whole series of adjustments that would create a more complex system adapted to the international standards recommended by the OECD and adopted by the European Union Council. When revising the rules authorities must be mindful about not making the system more complex and to avoid increasing the compliance burden in the country.

5 min read
Japanese tax and benefit system working parents Japan marginal tax rates Japan CFC rules Japenese CFC rules, Japan corporate tax rules, Japan tax rules

How Controlled Foreign Corporation Rules Look Around the World: Japan

Japan is a country with a complex multilayer system to calculate the corporate income tax. As a consequence, the CFC income determination has evolved as a complex set of rules to complement the corporate income tax. It would be a great idea for the Japanese authorities to address a simplification of the rules to facilitate the entry of new capital investments into their economy.

7 min read
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act offshoring Controlled Foreign Corporation rules around the world CFC rules US CFC rules passive foreign investment companies, PFICs GILTI, global minimum tax

How Controlled Foreign Corporation Rules Look Around the World: United States of America

The United States was the first country to enact CFC rules, and it is probably the country with the most complex set of rules that will be presented in this blog series. The rules determine control using a combined ownership test: one for the corporation and the other at the shareholder level. The assessable income under the rules is generally passive income but the amount of foreign income subject to U.S. tax has expanded with the adoption of GILTI.

10 min read
OECD global tax deal CFC Rules, OECD CFC, OECD multinational, OECD minimum tax, OECD multinational companies

CFC Rules Around the World

Our paper undertakes a review of controlled foreign corporation (CFC) rules around the world as a contribution to the global discussion over the possible expansion of existing anti-base erosion CFC regimes or the potential adoption of a minimum tax.

3 min read