State and local governments depend on many different types of taxes, one of which is known as an excise tax. Like general sales taxes, excise taxes are paid on the purchase of an item. But unlike sales taxes, excise...
- The Tax Policy Blog
- Fiscal Cliff: Capital Gains and Dividend Tax Increases Po...
Fiscal Cliff: Capital Gains and Dividend Tax Increases Pose Greatest Threat to Economy
The debate over the fiscal cliff will continue for the near future, but much of the debate is focused on the short-term effect of “going off the cliff.” It is true that the immediate impact of the fiscal cliff deserves attention, but the potential long-term damage to the economy may be even more damaging.
A Tax Foundation Special Report shows that if congress and the White House fail to get a deal done, the effects of the fiscal cliff would lower projected GDP by 9.61 percent over ten years. That would be a loss of $1.5 trillion to an already struggling economy.
The different tax increases in the fiscal cliff have their own share in the $1.5 trillion in damage, with the impact of the investment tax increases outweighing the others many times over. The tax increase on capital gains and dividends would account for $960.4 billion of the $1.5 trillion lost economic activity. The reason for the impact is simple: when you tax more of something, you get less of it.
The tax increase on capital would ripple across the economy and badly lower future output and cut wages. Capital fuels an economy. The equation is simple: a high amount of capital leads to greater investment; investments in technology, and research and development, lead to greater productivity; in turn, this productivity leads to higher wages. A higher tax on capital hurts this process and depresses wages.
This table shows how each tax change impacts on the economy ranked in order of damage and in the terms of GDP and wages.
GDP ($ in billions)
|Total Fiscal Cliff||-9.61%||-1,515.90||-7.35%|
|Capital gains & dividend increase||-6.09%||-960.4||-5.27%|
|Estate Tax Increase||-1.19%||-187.6||-1.04%|
|Rise in marginal tax rates||-1.16%||-182.3||-0.39%|
|Savings & income HI surtax||-0.54%||-85||-0.44%|
|Restore Marriage Penaty||-0.49%||-78||-0.15%|
|Restore PEP & Pease||-0.14%||-22.7||-0.05%|
In an economy struggling to get back on the right track, tax policy that further endangers the economy does not help. But with a deficit north of $1 trillion, the budget needs a combination of spending cuts and revenue increases to close the gap.
As the simulation shows, not all revenue raisers are created equal. In some cases, not all necessarily damage the economy. In fact, some of them help the economy: the best revenue raiser is economic growth.
Get Email Updates from the Tax Foundation
We will never sell or share your information with third parties.
Join the Tax Foundation's fight for sound tax policy Go
About the Tax Policy Blog
The Tax Policy Blog is the official blog of the Tax Foundation, a non-partisan, non-profit research organization that has monitored tax policy at the federal, state and local levels since 1937. Our economists welcome your feedback. If you would like to send an e-mail to the author of a blog post, please click on that person's name to locate his or her e-mail address or visit our staff page here.